a closed syllable, the mark 0 is placed over it. Thus en ka but oS& The letter Q ma
(No. 28), however, when final does not take this mark. Instead of this it becomes , a
small circle, written above the preceding consonant; thus, ^ nam, water, for ^5 ; jg
khdmt language, for ^5. When the preceding vowel is ° «,this and the small circle
are written 9. Thus, of tm.
When the last sign of a word is written twice, it means that the whole word is to be
repeated. Thus c8 oS Uk Uk, <$ mm mm, o5 &ai kai.
Mr. Needham transliterates the letter CAD 8ha (No. 21) by sa, but adds that it is
pronounced like a Bengali T. I therefore transliterate it by sha, not sa.
The letter y na (No. 22) is properly pronounced nya, like the Bengali i£p. It is
sometimes pronounced like an ordinary na, as in ^yC khift, pronounced Men, more.
Sometimes it has the force of a mere yet, as in ^*vf nun, pronounced noy. In such
cases I shall transliterate according to pronunciation, thus Men, not khefi; noy, not nun.
A final o5 t is often written y§ ch. Thus het, to do, is usually written e$v/5 hech.
This is an imitation of Burmese, in which a final ch is pronounced t.
The letters 03 la (No. 31) and p na (No. 25) are freely interchangeable.
As in Ahom OD ya (No. 29), q ra (No. 30)3 and o wa (No. 32), can be compounded
with other consonants. Such compounds are rare in Khamti, but they do occur.
There are no compounds with la, as there are in Ahom.
oo ya, when compounded, takes the form jj, thus qoS, myek, to carry on the
shoulder. c\ rat when compounded, takes the form (j, as in (cgi_ #m, a rupee. 0 t(j«,
when compounded, becomes the vowel d (No. 15). Thus goS mflA, a blossom. We
have a double compound in words like £D|OOiS akhydng, purport, a word borrowed from
the Burmese 3Dc(cgoSs.
Tones.—In Shan there are ten tones. In Khamti, according to Mr. Needham,
there are at least three. Eobinson in his grammar (while he only describes three)
appears to recognise four tones, viz.—
(1) The rising tone. This is the natural pitch of the voice, with a slight rising
inflection at the end, as ma, a dog. It is not indicated by any special mark, and corre-
sponds to Dr. Cushing's first, or 'natural' tone in Shan.
(2) The straightforward tone, of an even pitch. Eobinson does not mention or
describe this tone, but in a number of words (nearly all of which have this tone in
Shan) he puts the vowel of the word into special type. Thus $ o, a father. As
Robjnson makes no other provision for this tone, it appears that he intended to indicate
it by this typographical device, but omitted to draw attention to it. This tone corre-
sponds to Dr. Cushing's third, or £ straightforward' tone in Shnn.
(3) The falling tone. This Eobinson indicates by putting the consonant of the
word into special type, as in ma, to come. It appears to correspond to Dr. Oushing's